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EaseUS Partition Master Editions

EaseUS Partition Master help you organize and optimize your hard drive with Create, Delete, Resize and other dozens of powerful features. This disk management utility  is a smart and reliable assistance to manage your hard drive in many different ways. The user-friendly interface is so simple, even the most complex operation on managing your partitions and ensures every feature in this Software can be easy to found and navigate. EaseUS Partition Master supported: FAT12/FAT16/FA532, NTFS, ReFS, and EXT2/EXT3 File System. There are 5 EaseUS Partition Master editions with different in features and license authorization.

EaseUS Partition Master Editions
  1. Free edition – free for home users and doesn’t support Windows server operating system. Limited in some features.
  2. Professional edition – commercial version for desktops and laptops end users.
  3. Server edition – commercial version for Windows server users.
  4. Unlimited Edition – commercial version for enterprise users. It allows unlimited usage within one company.
  5. Technician edition – providing technical service with unlimited usage.easeus-editions-disk-management

Comparisons among different editions explained in the table below.

Hardware requirements

EaseUS Partition Master requires:

  1. computer at least with X86 or compatible CPU with main frequency 500 MHz,
  2. a standard PC system with mouse, keyboard and color monitor;
  3. RAM memory equal or larger than 1.5GB.
  4. Supported storage devices: IDE, SATA, SCSI, USB removable hard disk, Firewire Hard disk, USB flash drive, memory card, etc. Supported capability ranges from minimum 2 GB to maximum 16 TB.

 

File System History

File System is important in Disk Management. Without it information placed in a storage medium would be one large body of data with no way to tell where one piece of information stops and the next begins. History of file system begin in 1981, IBM introduced its first personal computer. The first IBM computer ran a new operating system designed by Microsoft, MS-DOS. The computer contained a 16-bit 8088 processor chip and two drives for low-density floppy disks. The MS-DOS file system , FAT (named for its file allocation table), provided more than enough power to format these small disk volumes and to manage hierarchical directory structures and files. the FAT file system continued to meet the needs of personal computer users even as hardware and software power increased year after year.

file-system-history
IBM Computer 1980 Commercial

However, file searches and retrieval took significantly longer on large hard disks than on the original low-density floppy disks of the first IBM personal computer. By the end of the 1980’s, the prediction of ” a computer on every desk and in every home” was less a dream and more a reality. Personal computers now had 16-bit processors and hard disks of 40 MB. This is too big that users. The users had to partition their disks into two or more volumes because the file allocation table’s limit was 32 MB per volume in that era. (later versions of MS-DOS allowed for larger disk volumes).

File System In 1990

In 1990, a high -performance file system(HPFS) was introduced as a part of the os/2 operating system version 1.x. specifically for large hard disks on 16- bit processor computers. On the heels of HPFS came HPFS386, take advantage of the 32-bit 80386 processor chip. Today’s personal computers include a variety of very fast processor chips and can accommodate multiple, huge hard disks. The new Windows NT file system, NTFS, is designed for optimal performance on these computers. Because of features such as speed and universality, FAT or HPFS are  now popular and widely used file systems. NTFS offers consistency with these two file systems, plus advanced functionality needed by corporations interested in greater flexibility and in data security.

ntfs-fat-file-system

 

Resilient File System (ReFS)

With codenamed “Protogon”, Microsoft introduced new Microsoft proprietary file system with Windows Server 2012 and the intent of becoming the next generation file system after NTFS. The advantages of ReFS include:

  1. Automatic integrity checking and data scrubbing,
  2. Removal of the need for running chkdsk,
  3. Protection against data degradation,
  4. Built-in handling of hard disk drive failure and redundancy,
  5. Integration of RAID functionality,
  6. A switch to copy/allocate on write for data and metadata updates,
  7. Handling of very long paths and filenames, and
  8. storage virtualization and pooling, including almost arbitrarily sized logical volumes (unrelated to the physical sizes of the used drives).

In early versions (2012–2013), ReFS was similar to or slightly faster than NTFS in most tests, but far slower when full integrity checking was enabled. A result attributed to the relative newness of ReFS. Pre-release concerns were also voiced by one blogger over Storage Spaces, the storage system designed to underpin ReFS. Reportedly could fail in a manner that prevented ReFS from recovering automatically. The ability to create ReFS volumes was removed in Windows 10’s 2017 Fall Creators Update for all editions except Enterprise and Pro for Workstations, which would seem to indicate Microsoft is no longer intending ReFS as a general replacement for NTFS, at least in the near future.

About Disks and Disk Organization

Each disk is divided into top and bottom sides. Rings on each side called tracks. Sections within each track called sectors. A sector is the smallest physical storage unit on a disk. Typically 512 bytes in size. The format command organizes the disk into tracks and sectors for use by a particular file system. Unless you specify a particular sector size, format evaluates your disk and determines an appropriate sector size for you.

Hard Disk
Hard Disk Drive

Sectors Allocation

As a file is written to the disk. The file system allocates the appropriate number of the sector to store the file’s data. For example, if each sector is 512 bytes and the file is 800 bytes. Two sectors are allocated for the file.

Later, if the file is appended. For example, to twice its size(1600 bytes), another two sectors are allocated. If contiguous sectors(sectors that are next to each other on the disk) are not available, the data is written elsewhere on the disk. The file is considered to be fragmented.

Fragmentation

Fragmentation only becomes an issue when the file system must search several different locations to find all the pieces of the file you want to read. The search causes a delay before the file is retrieved. Allocating larger sectors reduces the potential for fragmentation. But increases the likelihood that sectors would have unused space.

The way data is retrieved depends on the indexing methods used by the file system. The following sections provide details about FAT, HPFS, and NTFS, including how each store, indexes, and retrieves data on the disk.